OpenSSH has a port forwarding feature, which can be used as a SOCKS proxy server. This is useful if you are trying to reach a firewalled server which only accepts connections with from within its own local network (but doesn’t offer a VPN service to let you onto its local network).
If you have SSH access to any other machine on that local network, you can use the forwarding feature and the SOCKS 4 or 5 protocol to get to the server from your home box. The connection is mediated and forwarded by the machine on the network that you can reach, and to the firewalled server, you appear to be this internal machine.
The appropriate incantation is simply:
ssh -D port_num ssh_hostname
where port_num is a local port number (I like 50000, but any non-privileged port would be good)
Then, simply point your system or browser (in Firefox, for example, this would be in Preferences/Options -> Advanced -> Network -> Settings ) to use a SOCKS proxy at localhost, port port_num. Now accesses from that browser will be proxied through the ssh_hostname machine to the actual remote_host.
The context is that there was an application server that I had to reach from my home machine. The application server sits on machine R, which is restricted to an organization internal network I. There is no VPN service for I. SSH to machine H was available, which is also in I and is reachable from the public Internet. For small things, I could run commands from H, but it would have been really helpful to reach R directly from my home development box. I could use X11 forwarding to get an xterm for various tools there, but the overhead is huge. The administrator of network I has yet to grant me external access.
With this trick, just SSH’ed into machine H, set up the proxy port via -D, set up my browser to proxy through the local port, and easily accessed R from home. Nifty.
If you happen to have SSH access to a number of servers (as I seem to have for some reason…), this same trick can be used as a way to rotate through them fairly quickly. Just log out of your existing connection and ssh into a new host with the -D switch. This allows you to test various network apps from a number of different machines.